Editorial Guidelines

Texts intended for publication in Zapiski Historyczne, in Polish, English (British English is preferred) and German, should be submitted in the form of an editable text file (preferred formats .doc and .docx) to the e-mail address: sekretariat@zapiskihistoryczne.pl. The text should be standardized:

  1. font style: Times New Roman; font size: main text – 12, footnotes – 10;
  2. leading: main text – 1.5, footnotes – 1;
  3. paragraph indentation in the main text – 1.25.


Each text submitted to the editorial staff must be provided with basic metadata, i.e. first and last name of the author(s), institutional affiliation (or information on the lack thereof), ORCID, and the e-mail address.


All original scholarly texts (e.g. scholarly articles, review articles, source editions and discussion articles) must be accompanied by an abstract in English with a volume of 1,200 to 1,500 characters (including spaces). The abstract must include the most important pieces of information contained in the main text, i.e. the background of the research and the reason for undertaking a given topic, the aim of the research, employed research methods and tools, as well as the new findings. The abstract must not be a summary of the text, nor an extract taken literally from the introduction or the conclusion of the article. Also, a list of up to 10 keywords must be provided.

Once a text has been accepted for publication in the journal, the signed publishing agreement should be sent promptly by traditional mail as a printout (in three copies) or by e-mail as a scan (e-mail address: biuro@tnt.torun.pl). A failure to submit the signed publishing agreement may render the publication of the submitted text impossible.


Preferred volume of submitted texts:

  1. article – up to 60,000 characters (including spaces);
  2. discussion article – up to 40,000 characters (including spaces);
  3. book review – up to 15,000 characters (including spaces).



Illustrations attached to the texts should be sent as graphic files (preferably in .jpg or .png format, resolution at least 300 dpi). The precise placement of the illustrations in the text should be indicated.

The illustrations should be accompanied by a detailed caption, indicating the author and the origin of the illustration. The responsibility to ensure the rights for using the illustrations rests with the author.


On the first page of the review the information about the reviewed publication should be provided in the following order:

  1. the first and last name of the author(s) of the reviewed publication (in the case of a multi-author work or source edition, the first and last name of editor(s) follow the title of the reviewed publication);
  2. the main title and, if applicable, subtitle in italic type in accordance with the title page of the reviewed publication;
  3. the number of volumes or parts if the publication contains more than one volume (Arabic numerals);
  4. if applicable, the name of the publication series in roman (regular) type and the volume number within the series (Arabic numerals) in curved brackets;
  5. the name of the publishing house;
  6. the place and year of publication;
  7. the number of pages;
  8. the ISBN or ISSN number.

In the heading of the reviewed publication all the bibliographic data, i.e. the place of publication, a volume (e.g. ‘vol.’, ‘Bd.’, ‘Jg.’, ‘t.’), issue (e.g. ‘no.’, ‘H.’, ‘nr’, ‘z.’), abbreviations that refer to the authors, editors, translators, etc. (e.g. ‘ed.’, ‘hrsg. v.’, ‘bearb. v.’, ‘red.’, ‘wyd.’) should be provided in the language of the reviewed publication.


In the case of source editions, the rules and guidelines that the edition follows should be indicated. Preferably, already available guidelines for the publication of primary sources should be applied:

  1. Instrukcja wydawnicza dla średniowiecznych źródeł historycznych, Kraków 1925;
  2. Instrukcja wydawnicza dla źródeł historycznych. Od XVI do połowy XIX wieku, red. Kazimierz Lepszy, Wrocław 1953;
  3. Adam Wolff, Projekt instrukcji wydawniczej dla pisanych źródeł historycznych do połowy XVI wieku, Studia Źródłoznawcze, t. 1: 1957, pp. 155–181;
  4. Ireneusz Ihnatowicz, Projekt instrukcji wydawniczej dla źródeł historycznych XIX i początku XX wieku, Studia Źródłoznawcze, t. 7: 1962, pp. 99–123;
  5. Johannes Schultze, Richtlinien für die äußere Textgestaltung bei Herausgabe von Quellen zur neueren deutschen Geschichte, Blätter für deutsche Landesgeschichte, Bd. 98: 1962, pp. 1–11;
  6. Empfehlungen zur Edition frühneuzeitlicher Texte.


In the main text and footnotes, the quoted fragments of primary and secondary sources should be provided in roman (regular) type, with single quotation marks (‘…’) around the whole fragment. The style of quotation marks should be adjusted to the language of the publication; in the case of a German text – German quotation marks („…“), whereas in the case of a Polish text – Polish ones („…”) should be used.  In the case of quotation marks within the initial quotation, in an English text double quotation marks should be employed (‘…“…”…’), whereas in a Polish text such a case should be marked with the so-called French quotes („…«…»…”). Primary and secondary sources should be quoted in the language of the original text, with the original spelling preserved. It is also possible to provide a translation if the original text is included in a footnote or in curved brackets next to the translated quotation.

The author’s emphasis in the quoted text should be marked in boldface and provided with appropriate information with the author’s initials in square brackets, e.g. ‘[emphasis – P.K.]’.


In the main text and footnotes, the titles of works that have been published or are intended for publication (such as monographs, multi-author works, journal articles, source editions) should be written in italic type. If a fragment of the title of a published work was originally written using italic type, then when quoting it in the main text or in a footnote, this notation should be reversed, i.e. the fragment should be in roman (regular) type, while the rest of the title should be in italic type.


In the case of texts written in languages that use scripts other than the Latin (Roman) script, e.g. the Cyrillic script, the original script should be retained and a romanisation (conversion to the Latin script) of bibliographic data should be provided in square brackets. The variant of the romanisation applied should correspond to the language of the publication in the journal, i.e. English romanisation in an English text, Polish romanisation in a Polish text and German romanisation in a German one.


The titles of unpublished texts known to and used by researchers should be provided in roman (regular) type.


People mentioned in the main text for the first time should be presented with their full first and last names. When the same person is mentioned for the second and subsequent times in the main text or in footnotes, if not as a part of a bibliographic description of a cited publication, only their full last name should be provided (applies to people who lived in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries).

In the footnotes, when the publication is introduced for the first time, first and last names of the authors, editors, translators, etc. should be provided in full, even if they appeared earlier when a different publication has been cited. If the same publication is cited further on, the first name should be represented by an initial but the full last name must be provided.

Each time the last names of authors, editors, translators, etc. that appear in the footnotes should be represented in small capitals (and not in upper case or capital letters).


Generally accepted abbreviations, such as ‘e.g.’, ‘i.e.’, ‘etc.’, should be used in the main text and footnotes.


Dates in the main text and footnotes should be provided with the months expressed in words (e.g. 4 December 1610). The ordinal numbers referring to the century and the word ‘century’ itself should be provided in their full wording (e.g. the fifteenth century, not 15th c.). Most terms that refer to chronological periods, such as ‘the first half of the sixteenth century’, ‘the last quarter century’, as well as time-related adjectives (e.g. ‘a fourteenth-century castle’) should be written with the use of words, not numerals. The same applies to local and world wars (e.g. the Second Northern War, the First World War). On the contrary, when referring to decades, numerals should be used (e.g. ‘the 1720s’, ‘the 1950s’).



  1. Footnote indicators in the text should appear before punctuation (full stops, commas, semicolons, etc.).
  2. The bibliographic description of a cited publication: the full first and last name of the author (the latter in small capitals), the title of the monograph in italic type, the author of the translation (if applicable), the title of the publication series in roman (regular) type and the volume number in curved brackets (if applicable), the place and year of publication, page or pages.

Lars Hermanson, Friendship, Love, and Brotherhood in Medieval Northern Europe, c. 1000–1200, trans. Alan Crozier (The Northern World, vol. 85), Leiden–Boston 2019, pp. 111–139.

If it is necessary to indicate a specific edition of a book, the number of the edition should be placed after the publication year, in superscript, without spaces.

Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades, London 19972, pp. 114–118.

If a publication that is a reprint of an earlier edition is used, the original publication should be cited while adding information about the reprint.

Heinrich A. von Zastrow, Geschichte der beständigen Befestigung oder Handbuch der vorzüglichsten Systeme und Manieren der Befestigungskunst, Leipzig 1854 (reprint, intro. and ed.: Rudolf Schott, Osnabrück 1983).

  1. Titles and possible subtitles of monographs cited for the first time should be given in their full form along with the place and year of publication. When only one work of the same author has been previously cited, the Latin abbreviation ‘op.cit.’ should be used to stand in for the title of the work. If more than one work of the same author has been cited in the text, a shortened title without an ellipsis should be used. In neither of the above-mentioned cases the place and year of publication should be repeated when the work is cited for the second and subsequent times. When citing the work from the previous footnote, the Latin abbreviation ‘ibid.’ should be used. If, after the work of a given author, another of their texts is cited, the first and last name of the author(s) should be replaced with a proper Latin term: ‘idem’, ‘eadem’ or ‘iidem’/’eidem’. The same rules apply to citing journal articles, multi-author works, source editions, etc.

1 Nils Blomkvist, The Discovery of the Baltic: The Reception of a Catholic World-System in the European North (AD 1075–1225) (The Northern World, vol. 15), Leiden–Boston 2005, pp. 377–385.

2 Nils Blomkvist, Yet Another Viking Archetype – the Medieval Urbanist, [in:] The Emergence of Towns: Archaeology and Early Urbanization in Non-Roman, North-West Europe: The Swedish Institute of Urban History 75 Years: An Anniversary Symposium, September 3rd, 1994, ed. Lars Nilsson, Sven Lilja (Studier i stads- och kommunhistoria, vol. 14), Stockholm 1996, p. 138.

3 Ibid., pp. 142–146.

4 N. Blomkvist, The Discovery of the Baltic, p. 392.

  1. When citing a multi-author work or source edition, the first and last name (the latter in small capitals) of the editor(s) should be provided after the title of the volume preceded by a proper abbreviation, usually ‘ed.’. When citing a chapter in a multi-author work, between the title of the chapter and the title of the whole volume the preposition ‘[in:]’ should be placed. Both the titles of the chapter and the volume should be written in italic type.

Józef A. Gierowski, Reforms in Poland after the “Dumb Diet” (1717), [in:] Constitution and Reform in Eighteenth-Century Poland: The Constitution of 3 May 1791, ed. Samuel Fiszman, Indianapolis 1997, pp. 65–85.

Madis Maasing, Infidel Turks and Schismatic Russians in Late Medieval Livonia, [in:] Fear and Loathing in the North: Jews and Muslims in Medieval Scandinavia and the Baltic Region, ed. Cordelia Hess, Jonathan Adams, Berlin 2015, pp. 347–388.

  1. When citing a journal article, after the first and last name of the author(s) (the latter in small capitals) and the full title (in italic type), the name of the journal should be provided in roman (regular) type after a comma without quotation marks, next the volume number (usually abbreviated as  ‘vol.’), the year of publication after a colon, next the number of the issue after a comma (usually abbreviated as ‘no.’), and the pages. If the journal has no volume number and more than one issue appears annually, then the year of publication comes first, followed by the issue number.

Stephen C. Rowell, Bears and Traitors, or: Political Tensions in the Grand Duchy, ca. 1440–1481, Lithuanian Historical Studies, vol. 2: 1997, no. 1, pp. 50–53.

Karen Gram-Skjoldager, Haakon A. Ikonomou, Torsten Kahlert, Scandinavians and the League of Nations Secretariat, 1919–1946, Scandinavian Journal of History, vol. 44: 2019, no. 4, pp. 454–483.

Roman Czaja, Patrician Guilds in Medieval Towns on the Baltic Coast, Acta Poloniae Historica, vol. 92: 2005, p. 37.

  1. When citing a book review, the first and last name (the latter in small capitals) of the author of the review should appear first, then, after a comma, the abbreviation ‘[rev.]’, and then the first and last name (the latter in small capitals) of the author(s) of the reviewed work, the title of the reviewed work in italic type, the name of the journal (in roman type) in which the review was published and other data about the journal: volume number, year of publication, issue number, page or pages. A discussion article or polemic article with its own title should be cited as any journal article.

Matthias Range, [rev.] Michael North, Geschichte der Ostsee. Handel und Kulturen, German History, vol. 31: 2013, no. 2, pp. 289–291.

  1. Bibliographic data of publications cited in footnotes, such as the editor, translator, author of the introduction, etc. (e.g., ‘ed.’, ‘trans.’, ‘intro.’, ‘hrsg. v.’, ‘bearb. v.’, ‘red.’, ‘wyd.’, ‘opr.’, ‘tł.’), volume (e.g., ‘vol.’, ‘Bd.’, ‘Jg.’, ‘t.’, ‘R.’), issue (e.g., ‘no.’, ‘H.’, ‘nr’, ‘z.’), and the place of publication should always be provided in the language of the cited publication.

Dieter Heckmann, Die Edition der Kulmer Stadtbücher, Hansische Geschichtsblätter, Jg. 137: 2019, pp. 65–79.

Krzysztof Kwiatkowski, Prolog und Epilog temporis sanctis. Die Belagerung Kauens 1362 in der Beschreibung Wigands von Marburg, Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung, Bd. 57: 2008, H. 2, pp. 238–254.

Zygmunt Szultka, Spostrzeżenia nad procesem reformacji w Słupsku, Zapiski Historyczne, t. 83: 2018, z. 2, pp. 7–13.

Mečislovas Jučas, XVIII a. socialinės ir politinės problemos Lietuvos pavietų seimeliuose, Lietuvos istorijos metraštis, 1973, p. 27.

Sven Ekdahl, Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410. Quellenkritische Untersuchungen, Bd. 1: Einführung und Quellenlage (Berliner Historische Studien, Bd. 8), Berlin 1982, pp. 100–110.

Urzędnicy Prus Królewskich XV–XVIII wieku. Spisy, opr. Krzysztof Mikulski (Urzędnicy dawnej Rzeczypospolitej XII–XVIII wieku. Spisy, t. 5: Pomorze – Prusy Królewskie, z. 2), Wrocław–Warszawa–Kraków 1990, p. 78.

Zigmantas Kiaupa, Miestai, [in:] Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštijos kultūra. Tyrinėjimai ir vaizdai, sud. Vytautas Ališauskas, Liudas Jovaiša, Mindaugas Paknys, Rimvydas Petrauskas, Eligijus Raila, Vilnius 2001, p. 354.

  1. Titles of frequently cited source editions, journals and multi-author works, as well as the names of institutions such as archives and libraries, should be written in full when given for the first time, with ‘further cit.’ and an abbreviated name in curved brackets to be used further on.

1 Das Ausgabebuch des Marienburger Hauskomturs für die Jahre 1410–1420, hrsg. v. Walther Ziesemer, Königsberg 1911 (further cit. AMH), p. 179.

2 AMH, p. 257.

1 Archiwum Państwowe w Toruniu (further cit. APT), Akta miasta Chełmna (further cit. AMCh), ref. no. 2807.

2 APT, Akta miasta Torunia (further cit. AMT), ref. no. 4, pp. 63–92.

3 APT, AMT, Kat. III: Listy cechowe, ref. no. 5042, [no pagination].

4 APT, AMCh, ref. no. 13, p. 47.

1 W. Gorzeński do J.Z. Rybińskiego, 24 November 1715, Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie (further cit. BN), Biblioteka Ordynacji Zamoyskich (further cit. BOZ), ref. no. 875, p. 88.

2 Relacyja spotkania się podjazdu polskiego związkowego z wojskiem saskim pod komendą jenerała feldmarszałka Fleminga i z dywizyją JP wdy chełmińskiego między Wąchockiem i S. Krzyżem w dzień św. Jędrzeja, 30 November 1715, BN, BOZ, ref. no. 875, pp. 68–68v.

3 J.Z. Rybiński do Aleksandra Pawła Sapiehy, marszałka wielkiego litewskiego, Puck, 12 April 1715, Biblioteka Zakładu Narodowego im. Ossolińskich (further cit. BOss.), ref. no. 2665, p. 8.

  1. Names of cited manuscript sources stored in archives and other institutions should be provided in roman (regular) type. When citing a manuscript source, the following data should be provided: name of the cited text (given by the author of the publication or original), place and date of origin of the manuscript source, name of the archive or other institution where the source is stored in the original language and alphabet (with romanisation in square brackets for non-Latin scripts), location of the archive or other institution (if not indicated by its name), name of the archival unit or collection, the archival reference number, page or pages. In the case of correspondence, if possible, the sender and recipient of the letter should be given, as well as the place and date of its creation. When manuscript sources are discussed or characterized in the main text, it is sufficient to start the entry in the footnote with the name of the archive or other institution, providing the name of the archival unit or collection, the archival reference number and the pages. When using abbreviations of the names of archives, other institutions, archival units and collections, the use of abbreviations that commonly appear in scholarly publications is encouraged.

Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin-Dahlem, XX. Hauptabteilung, Ordensbriefarchiv, no. 14025.

Uniwersał na seymiki poselskie przedsejmowe (dla województwa inflanckiego), Warszawa, 22 May 1780, Нацыянальны Гістарычны Архіў Беларусі, Мінск [Natsyyanal’ny Histarychny Arkhiw Byelarusi, Minsk] (further cit. NGAB), fond 1503, opis 1, sprawa 392, p. 7.

  1. When referring to an online publication, one should provide: the first and last name of the author(s) (the latter in small capitals), title of the publication (in italic type), the title of an online project, database or other resource that the publication is part of (also in italic type), preceded by ‘[in:]’, website address, date of online access in square brackets.

Danuta Kozioł, Tolkienowie z Gdańska, http://biskupiagorka.pl/tolkienowie-z-gdanska/ [accessed online 20 August 2020].

Gregory VII: Dictatus Papae 1090, [in:] Internet Medieval Source Book, https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/g7-dictpap.asp [accessed online 20 August 2020].

  1. In the case of publications with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), the proper identifier should be provided.

Carsten Jahnke, Hansische Kaufleute und deren Religiosität außerhalb ihrer Heimat, Zapiski Historyczne, t. 84: 2019, z. 1, s. 7–41, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15762/ZH.2019.01.


All texts prepared for publication in Zapiski Historyczne should be provided with a bibliography prepared according to the following examples based on the guidelines of the Chicago Manual of Style.

  1. A monograph with one or more authors:

Šapoka, Mindaugas. Warfare, Loyalty, and Rebellion: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Great Northern War, 1709–1717. London, New York: Routledge, 2018.

Güttner-Sporzyński von, Darius. Poland, Holy War, and the Piast Monarchy 1100–1230. Turnhout: Brepols, 2014.

Jóźwiak, Sławomir, Krzysztof Kwiatkowski, Adam Szweda and Sobiesław Szybkowski. Wojna Polski i Litwy z Zakonem Krzyżackim w latach 1409–1411. Malbork: Muzeum Zamkowe w Malborku, 2010.

  1. A chapter or other part of an edited multi-author work:

Wilson, Peter H. “Prussia as a Fiscal-Military State, 1640 –1806.” In The Fiscal-Military State in Eighteen-Century Europe, edited by Christopher Storrs, 95–124. Farnham, Burlington: Ashgate, 2009.

Butterwick, Richard. “Lawmaking in a Post-Composite State? The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century.” In The Eighteenth-Century Composite State, edited by David W. Hayton, James Kelly and John Bergin, 221–243. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Bijsterveld, Arnoud-Jan A., Kim Esmark and Hans J. Orning. “Elites and Social Bonds: How Nordic Were the Nordic Medieval Elites?” In Nordic Elites in Transformation, c. 1050–1250, vol. 2: Social Networks, edited by Kim Esmark, Lars Hermanson and Hans J. Orning, 325–345. New York, London: Routledge, 2020.

  1. A multi-author work as a whole:

Jahnke, Carsten, ed. A Companion to Medieval Lübeck. Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2019.

Callmer, Johan, Ingrid Gustin and Mats Roslund, eds. Identity Formation and Diversity in the Early Medieval Baltic and Beyond: Communicators and Communication. Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2017.

  1. A journal article:

Jezierski, Wojtek. “St Adalbertus domesticus: Patterns of Missioning and Episcopal Power in Poland and Scandinavia in the Eleventh to Thirteenth Centuries.” Acta Poloniae Historica 119 (2019): 209–260.

Rotz, Rhiman A. “The Lubeck Uprising of 1408 and the Decline of the Hanseatic League.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 121/1 (1977): 1–45.

Rogulski, Jakub. “Memory of Social Elites. What Should Not Be Forgotten: The Case of the Lithuanian Princes in the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries.” The Court Historian 22/2 (2017): 189–210.

Jučas, Mečislovas. “XVIII a. socialinės ir politinės problemos Lietuvos pavietų seimeliuose.” Lietuvos istorijos metraštis (1973): 21–37.

Rozynkowski, Waldemar. “Święci na pograniczu. O świętych w państwie Zakonu Krzyżackiego w Prusach.” Komunikaty Mazursko-Warmińskie (2006) issue 2: 187–193.

  1. A translated text:

North, Michael. The Baltic: A History. Translated by Kenneth Kronenberg. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press, 2015.

Rowell, Stephen C. Pogańskie imperium. Litewska dominacja w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej 1295–1345. Translated by Grzegorz Smółka. Oświęcim: Napoleon V, 2017.

  1. A book review or a discussion article:

Range, Matthias. Review of Geschichte der Ostsee. Handel und Kulturen, by Michael North. German History 31/2 (2013): 289–291.

Balcerek, Mariusz. “Sasi w Inflantach. O książce Grzegorza Szymborskiego.” Review of Wyprawa Fryderyka Augusta I do Inflant w latach 1700–1701 w świetle wojny domowej na Litwie, by Grzegorz Szymborski. Zapiski Historyczne 81/3 (2016): 151–165.

  1. Source edition:

Wolf, Kirsten, ed. The Old Norse-Icelandic Legend of Saint Barbara. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000.

Biskup, Radosław, ed. ‘Formularz z Uppsali’. Późnośredniowieczna księga formularzowa biskupstw pruskich. Toruń: Towarzystwo Naukowe w Toruniu, 2016.

Wigand von Marburg. Nowa kronika pruska. Edited by Sławomir Zonenberg and Krzysztof Kwiatkowski. Toruń: Towarzystwo Naukowe w Toruniu, 2017.

  1. Scholarly thesis:

Jurgaitis, Robertas. “Vilniaus seimelio veikla 1717–1795 m.” PhD diss., Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2007.

  1. Online resource:

“Circulation of Knowledge and Learned Practices in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.” Accessed October 27, 2019. http://ckcc.huygens.knaw.nl/epistolarium

Rogers, Bethany. “The Vikings in the Eyes of a Byzantine Emperor.” Accessed September 25, 2020. https://www.medievalists.net/2020/08/viking-byzantine-emperor/

Fordham University. “Internet History Sourcebooks Project.” Accessed July 1, 2018. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/index.asp

In the bibliography, for texts with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), the identifier should be provided according to the following example:

Jahnke, Carsten. “Hansische Kaufleute und deren Religiosität außerhalb ihrer Heimat.” Zapiski Historyczne 84/1 (2019): 7–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.15762/ZH.2019.01.

In the case of works published in languages that use scripts other than the Latin (Roman) script, e.g. the Cyrillic script, all bibliographic data to be included in the bibliography must be romanised (converted to the Latin script):

Polekhov, Sergey. Nasledniki Vitovta. Dinasticheskaya voyna v Velikom knyazzhestve Litovskom v 30-ye gody XV veka. Moskva: Indrik, 2015.

The bibliography should not include manuscript sources that have not been edited, or premodern printed texts that have not been published in the form of a critical edition.

Indexing and Citations